汉语中几种特殊句型的翻译的论文

  汉语中几种特殊句型的翻译的论文

   摘要:汉语中有些特殊句型,如”是”字句、”得”字句、”把”字句、”搞”字句等,不是与英语非完全对应,就是为英语所无。本文分析了这些句型的特点,归纳了翻译这些句型的基本技巧。 关键词:汉语;英语;特殊句型;翻译;技巧 汉语中有些常见句型,如”是”字句、”得”字句、”把”字句、”搞”字句等,其翻译没有、也不可能有固定的公式可以套用,如汉语的判断词”是”不一定总是翻译成英语的系动词be。但是,通过纷繁的译例,我们仍然可以探索出翻译这些句型的有效方法和策略。 (一) “是”字句的翻译:“是”字句在汉语中占有相当的比例,但并非所有的”是”都是判断词,因此不能机械地用英语的连系动词be来翻译,必须结合语境含义译之。汉语中的”是”可表示等同、类属、特征、存在等意义;”是……的”含有被动意义;与”才”、”就”、”正”等连用表示强调;”是”还可以表示一种直观表象或结果。下面介绍一些”是”字句的翻译方法。。 1. 译为英语连系动词be ---改革是振兴中国的唯一出路,是人心所向,大势所趋,不可逆转。 reform is the only process through which china can be revitalized, a process which is irreversible and which accords with the will of the people and the general trend of events. ---那年月,有钱人是天天过年。wWW.11665.coM in those years, the rich people’s extravagance was such that everyday was a spring festival. ---是党和政府的正确方针和政策,促进了广大农村的经济繁荣。 it is the correct principles and policies of our party and government that have promoted the economic prosperity of china’s vast rural areas. 2. 省略”是”字 ---武汉是长江中下游地区的特大城市,是湖北省的政治、经济、文化、科技中心。 wuhan, a metropolis situated in the middle reaches of the changjiang river, is the political, economic, cultural, scientific and technological center of hubei province. (译文利用同位语,将第一个”是”省略) ---中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,社会生产力水平总的还比较低。 as the largest developing country in the world china has a relatively low level of productive forces on the whole. ---工业企业效益差是当前许多矛盾的症结所在。 all the contradictions existing in industrial enterprises today boil down to scanty economic returns. 3. 译为被动语态 ---革命者是杀不完的。 revolutionaries can never be wiped out. ---这双皮鞋是定做的。 this pair of leather shoes are custom-made. ---这种装置在机械表制造工业中是很需要的。 this kind of device is much needed in the mechanical watch-making industry. 4. 根据”是”的实际意义翻译 ---创新是一个民族进步的灵魂。 innovation sustains the progress of a nation. ---这是大势所趋,人心所向。 this represents the general trend of development and the common aspiration of the people. ---澳门问题的圆满解决,是中葡两国关系史上的一个重要里程碑。 the successful settlement of the macao question marks an important milestone in the annals of sino-portuguese relation. ---这个增长速度是指导性的,是就全国来说的。 this growth rate serves as a guide which applies to the country as a whole. 5. 译为but it is (was)… ---这个故事好是好,就是长了点。 it is a good story all right, but it’s a bit too long. 6. 用there be结构翻译表示”凡是”的”是”字 ---是重活,他都抢着干。 whenever there’s a tough job, he is always the first to do it. (二) “得”字句的翻译 汉语结构助词”得”一般用在动词或形容词之后,连接补语成分,表示能力、可能性、结果、程度等。汉语的”得”字,可根据其语法功能,利用英语的词法或句法手段翻译。 1. 用情态助动词翻译”得”字 英语的情态助动词can, could, be able to可以表示能力;may, might, can, could表示可能性,因此可以利用它们来翻译表示能力或可能性的”得”字。例如: ---她的英语讲得好。 she can speak english well. ---你干得了这件事吗? can you do it? ---他看得出两者的差别。 he was able to see the difference between the two. 2. 用词法手段翻译”得”字 英语的后缀-ible, -able构成的词语可以表示能力或可能性,因此也可利用这类词翻译”得”字。例如: ---有些星星肉眼都看得很清楚。 some stars are quite visible to the unaided eye. ---这个人靠得住吗? is the man reliable ? ---这个道理讲得通。 the reason is acceptable. 3. 用固定结构翻译”得”字 当”得”字表示结果或程度时,可利用英语中表示相同意义的固定结构如so …that等来翻译。例如: ---地板霉烂得有许多地方不能再擦洗了。 the floors were in so rotten a condition that many of them could not be scrubbed. ---不要高兴得忘乎所以。 don’t be so happy as to forget everything. ---天气闷热得大家喘不过气来。 it was such a hot and stuffy weather that people were out of breath. ---这些苹果酸得不能吃。 these apples are too sour for eating. 4. 省略”得”字 有时,”得”字无需翻译,只需翻译”得”字位于其中的短语即可。例如:

   ---他们俩人很合得来。 both of them got well along with each other. ---学生们听课听得很入神。 the students listened to the lecture attentively. ---你来得正是时候。you came in the nick of time. ---游客们玩得很开心。 the visitors had a wonderful time. ---这件事情做得非常出色。 it’s exceedingly well done. (三) “把”字句的翻译 同汉语”是”字句一样,”把”字句也是汉语的一种常见句型。汉语中的”把”字主要起引导受事者的作用,语态形式上表现为主动式,因此使汉语减少了被动句的使用频率,很多被动意义都可借助”把”字句来表达。”把”字”常与表示人的生理或心理状态的词语,如”忙、累、急、气”等搭配,引导表示结果的补语;”把”字可与”一”、”当作”、”给”等连用,构成”把……一……”、”把……当作……”、”把……给……”句型;”把”可用于句首建构祈使句。”把”字的翻译要兼顾其语法及语义功能以及英语的表达习惯。 1. 省略”把”字 ---我错把她当作她的孪生妹妹了。 i mistook her for her sister. ---他的话几乎把我给气疯了。 what he said almost made me go mad. ---房地产商人把沿海滩的空地全部抢购一空。 the real estate businessmen took up all the land available along the beach. ---今天是什么风把你给吹来的? what has brought you here today ? 2. 译为被动句 ---他所做的一切把我感动得流下了眼泪。 i was moved to tears by what he had done. ---把这些救灾物资送到洪灾区是当前的第一要务。 it is currently the first and foremost thing that these disaster-relief supplies should be dispatched to the flood-stricken areas. --隆隆的大炮声把傀儡军吓坏了。 the puppet soldiers were frightened to death by the rumbling of cannons. (四) “搞”字句的翻译 目下,”搞”字在汉语里的流行之势,使有人发出”怎一个’搞’字了得”的感叹。关于”搞”的妙用,作家孙绍振说:“搞字的功能可分为两类:丑的则遮蔽,不丑的则美化;可谓有美皆备,无丽不臻。”鉴于”搞”在汉语中倍受青睐这一语言事实,其翻译就成为绕不过去的问题。”搞”字意思之丰富,用得之活,不是汉语的”做”所能望其背项的,如果不考虑风格和情感,倒有点像英语的do,几乎是个”万能”动词。”搞”字的翻译,应当具体问题具体分析,弄清其在具体语境中的具体含义,然后再选择恰当的词语译之。 1. 译为动词或动词短语 “搞”最常见的意义是”做”、”干”、”弄”、”从事”、”进行”等,因此可用do, get, make, work, practise, engage in, go in for等来翻译。例如: ---搞字对字的翻译常常是行不通的。 it is often unacceptable to do a word-to-word translation. ---这事没啥搞头。 there’s no point in doing that. ---中国现在实行对外开放、对内搞活的政策。 china is now implementing the policy of opening to the outside world and invigorating the domestic economy. ---他俩合起来搞我。 the two of them joined in making things difficult for me. ---我们想搞水果蔬菜生意。 we are thinking of starting up in the fruit and vegetable trade. ---他一心要把对手搞臭。 he is bent on discrediting his opponent. 2. 译为其他词类 ---你们在搞什么名堂? what are you up to ? (“搞”译为副词短语up to) ---我们的国家大,人口众多,经济落后,农业要搞上去,最重要的还是要调动农民的积极性,自力更生,艰苦奋斗。 agricultural advance in so vast a country, with such a large population and backward economy as in china, requires above all else mobilizing the initiative of peasants to work hard and self-reliantly. (“搞”译为名词advance) 3. 省略“搞”字 ---我们确定搞两个开放:一个是对内开放,一个是对外开放。 we have decided on an open policy in two respects: namely, to open up both externally and internally. ---但我的事现在搞得满城风雨,人人皆知了。 but there had been too much publicity about my case. ---我们必须一心一意搞建设。 we must concentrate on economic development. ---这工作不好搞。 this is a difficult job. 4. 译为被动句 ---能不能尽快把科技搞上去,这是一个关系到社会主义全局,关系到我们国家命运与前途的大问题。 whether science and technology can be pushed forward as quickly as possible is a question of vital importance for socialist construction as a whole and for the destiny and future of our country. 总之,汉语特殊句型的翻译,必须具体问题具体分析,要充分考虑英语的语文习惯,决不能生搬硬套,用所介绍的技巧死套某句原文。翻译方法是人总结出来的,实践中还有许多技巧需要我们摸索和总结。 参考文献 [1]陈宏薇,2003,《汉英翻译基础》(第八版),上海:上海外语教育出版社。 [2]吕瑞昌等,2005,《汉英翻译教程》(第三十四版),陕西人民出版社。 [3] 杨全红,2003,《汉英词语翻译探微》,上海:汉语大词典出版社。

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